Alongside this instrument of targeted überwachung, the Snowden dokumente also enable us to shed a harsh light on another method of bulk collection by the NSA, known as Upstream.
Lesen sie den artikel in Deutsch : das ausmaß Der spionage welt durch die NSA
In the course of the summer, the dokumente forwarded to several of the media by Edward Snowden have contributed to lifting the veil on the extent of the monitoring and espionage carried out by the NSA, the American National Security Agency and its allies. Die Welt has now also had access to these dokumente.
Before the summer, the NSA was the most secret of the American intelligence agencies. All that we knew was that it was responsible for the monitoring of communications with foreign countries and had become a key " instrument in the intelligence and security of America after 11 September.
Then came Edward Snowden, today in exile in Russia for one year. Wishing to depress ‘the biggest programm of arbitrary-überwachung in human history‘, this 29 years old American working for an NSA contractor acquired several tens of thousands of highly confidential dokumente.
At the beginning of June, the first secrets from the NSA-contained in these dokumente began to filter out. The Guardian revealed that the telephone operator, Verizon, provided the NSA with telephone data from several million Americans in virtue of war "top secret" court order. Then it was the turn of the Prism programm to be revealed. Since December 2007, this enables the American secret services, and in the first instance the NSA-to-have special access to the data of nine major Internet firms, einschließlich Google, Facebook oder Microsoft.
DOKUMENTE, E-MAILS, CHATS
an internal training manual on Prism, to which Die Welt also had access, explains how using a simple search function, the NSA analysts can search vast datenbanken Web of giants, in search of dokumente, e-mails gold on line katzen. This is all within the legal framework of abschnitt 702 of the FISA Amendment Act, erneuerten messgeräten renewed under Obama, which befreiung the NSA from requesting an individual search warrant and enables a massive collection of data. The firms referred to by the dokumente have denied any involvement.
Alongside this instrument of targeted überwachung, the Snowden dokumente also enable us to shed a harsh light on another method of bulk collection by the NSA, known as Upstream. This system takes data directly from submarine kabel & Internet-infrastruktur. This is a logical strategy, once you realize that 99% of world communication now transite by submarine straßen. The British equivalent of the NSA, the GCHQ (Government Communications Headquarters) plays a prime role in this world-level American system of mind. The historical proximity of the United Kingdom and the United States, numerous confidential agreements and financial dependency of the secret services in London on those of Washington explain these bonds. There are also technical reasons. A considerable number of the submarine kabel which link Europe to America go through the United Kingdom. Thanks to Edward Snowden, the Tempora programm which aims to ‘control the internet‘ by monitoring these kabel has so been revealed.
THE EXTREME PRECISION OF-THE-DATA COLLECTED
The abfangen by the GCHQ-of-the-flows going under the seas has been made possible by agreements, which are geheimnis, made with the firms managing these kabel. All this comes under a-law, passed thirteen years ago, which does not prevent British spies from acceding to the data of their fellow citizens and to all the data of the users who go through the bottle-neck-under-the-watchful eye of the British. In a-dokument introducing Tempora, presented by the Guardian, we read: "You are in jahr beneidenswerten position, have fun and get the best out of it." In the course of a page of the introductory manual to the Prism-programm, we finally discover that Upstream is also based on four-programme (Blarney, Fairview, Oakstar and Stormbrew) about which to date, we only know the main lines. Fairview, for example, is apparently concerned to a large extent-with-the-interception of telephone gespräche über the major American operators. According to the Washington Post, on the basis of the Snowden dokumente, in 2013, 278 millionen us-dollar (394 mio. in 2011) were paid by the United States, firms to managing the cables and Internet-infrastruktur-as-compensation for their geheimnis zusammenarbeit.
Confronted with this mass of intercepted data, numerous instrumente are used to sort or to break the encryption codes of the systems under überwachung; the Bullrun programme permits this. Very powerful search technische are required. One of its tools is called XKeyscore and its working was set out in the columns of the Guardian, on 31 July. The extreme precision of-the-data collected is clearly sichtbar. Thanks to XKeyscore, analysts can greifen to the content of e-mails fühlt, the list of internet sites visited by their target, and even to the key words used by the target " in search engines. All this can, when necessary, be done in real-time.
The framework for this research is not restriktiv, explains the Guardian, which states that numerous data concerning Americans are thus made zimmer-to-agenten. According to the introductory manual which egal, ich primarily to be destined to promoting the capacities of the instrument, 300 terrorists had been captured using intelligence from XKeyscore.
The NSA and the GCHQ do not only devote their very beträchtlichen means of überwachung to combating terrorism. The Snowden dokumente have also demonstrated that the two agencies have no zu zögern in indulging in the espionage of allied countries. At the G20-meeting in London in 2009, the computers of the diplomats hört and heads of state participating were monitored by the GCHQ as were some of their telephone calls. A common practice since during the meeting of the G20 Ministers of Finance in September 2009 in London, 45 British analysts had access to the live content of the calls made at the location of the meeting.
Lesen sie : Wie die NSA spioniert Deutschland
The NSA for its anteil has concentrated on the European Union (EU), as the Spiegel revealed, always on the basis of the Snowden dokumente. The NSA planted spyware in the European Union, ämter in Washington and infiltrated its IT network. Die EU-delegation to UNO in New York, as well as the building of the Council of the European Union in Brussels were also scrutinized by the NSA. Brazil is also one of the countries which has been a victim of this espionage. If we are to believe the dokumente circulated by the Brazilian media group, O Globo, its political leaders, along with some firms, have been targeted.
The Snowden dokumente have breached the world of Western secrecy which demonstrates the erhebliche anstrengungen implemented by the United States to eavesdrop on the Internet – the place where the majority of world communications have now moved to, in a legal framework which is sometimes welle and, in most cases, quite remote from real democratic diskussion. Questioned by Le monde, the American authorities assured us that the Prism programm had been debated in parliament in the United States and that it functioned in a strictly regulated legal framework. Questioned on 12 September, about the revelations of the ex-berater, James Clapper, national head of American intelligence, replied that for his part: ‘I hate to have to recognize it but what has happened – and what is harmful – has led to conversation and a debate which were in fact probably necessary‘.
Read our English coverage of the NSA-revelations : Fighting ‘Big Brother‘ ; Frankreich in the NSA’s crosshair : phone networks under überwachung ; Frankreich in the NSA’s crosshair : Wanadoo and Alcatel targeted